Atoms - The smallest unit of matter - both living and non-living.


Cell - The smallest unit of life and the building block of all living organisms.

Cell Membrane

Cell Membrane - Separates the inner parts of the cell from the area outside of it.

Cell Wall

Cell Wall - Outer part of the cell that provides a "wall" of protection for the cell.


Chlorophyll - A pigment or substance which gives color to plants.


Chloroplast - Part of a cell that contains that contains chlorophyll, and which provides color to plants.

compound microscope

Compound MicroscopeA compound microscope, is a microscope that uses many lenses, as compared to a simple microscope which only uses one lens.


Cytoplasm - A jelly-like substance found in a cell that surrounds the nucleus and holds the organelles in place.


Differencethe quality that makes one person or thing unlike another.

Example: There is a difference between cats and dogs. They are NOT the same.


DigestedTo convert (food) into simpler compounds that can be absorbed by the body.


DNA - Part of a cell that holds hereditary instructions such as eye color, weight, or height.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Endoplasmic Reticulum - The transportation network found in a cell that moves food and waste materials around and out of the cell.


Environment - the circumstances, objects, or conditions by which one is surrounded.


Existencethe state or fact of existing; being.

Example: All cells come from other cells that are already in existence or being

Golgi Body

Golgi Body - Part of the cell that packages, stores, and transports waste products until the cell is ready to get rid of them.


Hereditary - Passing, or capable for passing naturally from parent to offspring through the genes.

Example: Blue eyes are hereditary in our family.


History - A record of past events and times, especially in relation to the human race.

Example: Do you know your family history?


Invention - A new and unique process, machine, or improvement that did not previously exist.

Example: The laptop computer is a relatively new invention, as it the iPod, iPhone, and iPad.




Magnify - To increase the apparent size of something, as a lens on a microscope does.

Example: We were able to magnify the cell up to 10 times its actual size.


Microscope - An instrument having a magnifying lens or a combination of lenses for observing objects to small to be seen with the naked eye.


Mitochondrion - Considered the "powerhouse" of a cell, its function is to release energy in the cell when it needs it.


Molecules - The smallest physical unit of an element, consisting of 2 or more atoms.

Example: A water molecule is made up of one hydrogen atom, and one oxygen atom.



Non-Living - Anything that is not now, nor has ever been alive.

Example: Rocks are non-living matter, while plants are living matter.



Nucleus - Is the "brain" of the cell, that controls all the activity of the cell, as well as the DNA.


Organelles - Smaller units in a cell that carry out a particular function or role.

Example: The nucleus, mitochondrion, golgi body, etc, are all organelles - or parts of a cell.


Organisms - A living form of life, such as a plant, animal, or bacterium; a body made up of organs, organelles, or other parts that work together to carry on the various processes of life.


Organization - The act or process of organizing parts into an arranged whole.



Organs - In the study of biology, "organs" relate to a group of tissues that form the structure of an organ, such as a heart or kidney.



Photosynthesis - The process by which a green plant turns water and carbon dioxide into food when the plant is exposed to light.


Powerhousesomeone or something that is full of a particular thing.

Example: He is a powerhouse of energy, means that he is full of energy.


Protection - to keep away from harm.

Example: The steel wall in the picture below keeps the water from flooding the land on the other side of the wall.


Semi-Permeable - Having pores or openings that allow liquids or gases to pass through.

Example: The cell membrane is semi-permeable because it allows certain materials into the cell that it needs, such as food, but keeps out other materials that are not needed for the cell to survive.


Separateto sort, part, or divide.

Example: I can separate an egg yolk from its egg white.


Specialized - In relation to the field of biology, an organ serves a special function.

Example: The heart is an organ specialized to pump blood. It is the only specialized organ able to pump blood. No other organs in the body pump blood.


Systems - A combination of parts that form together to make a whole.

Example: The stomach, intestines, liver, and pancreas are organs (or parts) that work together to digest our food and form the Digestive System.



Theory - A well researched explanation of some aspect of the natural world.

Example: Scientists have a theory that the beginning of the universe started with the "Big Bang."


Tissue - Tissues are made up of layers of cells. Tissues combine to form organs like the liver, lungs, or the colon.

Example: The skin overing our body is an organ that is made up of many layers of tissues, which are in turn made up of cells.


Transport - To move materials or goods from one place to another.

Example: In a cell, food and water are transported around and out of the cell through the Endoplasmic Reticulum, which acts like a railway or transport system.


Vacuole - This part of the cell looks like an empty sac, where water, food, and waste are stored until they can be used.

waste products

Waste Products  - Substances and materials that are left over from life's processes.

Example: Cells take in food and what is not used are waste products and are moved out of the cell.