What are volcanoes and earthquakes? 


By: Casey McHale 

How Do Volcanoes Form?

  • Volcanoes form deep within the mantle of the earth's crust, where the magma forms. 
  • Magma sometimes gushes out of weak spots in the crust, aided by the pressure of gases it contains, 
  • Volcano is an opening where hot this hot material erupts. 
  • Think of eruption has opening up a a can of shaken soda. 
  • The bubbles of gases seperate from the liquid and force bubbles out of the top of the soda can. 
  • The material that is forced out of the volcano is a mixture of ash, cinders, and hot molten rock.
  • Lava is the word for the mixture. 
  • As it cools, it hardens and becomes igneous rock ... This is how rock builds to great hieghts, and mountains and islands are formed!! 

What are Volcanoes? 

  • a mountain that opens downward to a pool of molten rock below the surface of the earth. When pressure builds up, eruptions occur. They have been known to knock down entire forests. They can trigger tsunamis, flash floods, earthquakes and mudflows. 
  • A volcano has a LARGE amount of magma in pockets of chambers underneath the earth's surface. Magma erupts at the top of the volcano through a bowl-shaped opening. 

What is an Earthquake?

  • shaking, rolling, or sudden shock of the earth's surface. 
  • They are used for the Earth's natural means of releasing stress
  • The West Coast is most at risk of having one, but can happen anywhere. 
  • They usually last less than one minute. 
  • They are unpredictable, although scientists are working on it! 

What is the cause of an earthquake? 

  • There are about 20 plates along the surface of the earth that move at all times and slowly pass eachother. 
  • When the plates squeeze or stretch, they shift rocks with great froce-- which causes an earthquake. 
  • Think of it this way-- if you hold a pencil horizontally and apply force to each end. The force of pushing down on it will bend the pencil. After the force was applied the pencil would break in the middle and release stress as energy. 
  • This is very similiar to how an earthquake forms.