A Technology Integration Planning (TIP) Model for Teachers

Author: Sonja Gabriela Reyes

Original Author: M.D. Roblyer

  • Phase 1: Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)

  • Phase 2: Why should I use a technology-based method?

  • Phase 3: How will I know students have learned?

  • Phase 4: What teaching strategies and activities will work best?

  • Phase 5: Are essential conditions in place to support technology integration?

  • Phase 6: What worked well? What could be improved?


As a teacher you need to be able to identify where you are in regards to the framework of the TPACK. In other words, you need to know your knowledge bases pertaining to technology (TK , TCK , TPK , and TPACK ). Metacognitvie awareness of the TPACK will allow you to be a thoughtful/critical consumer of technology, and be able to reflect and refract on the best times when to integrate technology in the classroom.

Having a technology based method may allow you to use technology as a solution for your current teaching problems. According to Everett Rogers, people resist new ways of doing things even if it might be better than their current ways. However, if a person is aware of the substantial benefits of the change they are more partial to adopt the new way or ways. He calls this relative advantage  . Before you try to solve a problem, you need to clearly state the problem you are trying to solve; it sounds simple but people usually try to jump ahead without assessing.

As a teacher you will decide the skills you want your students to learn from technology-integrated lessons and will design a way to assess how well students retained the information and how effectively the activity was carried out. Some examples of assessment include: higher achievement outcome (assessed with a test), cooperative work outcome (use an existing rubric to grade skills), attitude outcome (create an attitude survey to assess satisfaction), and improved motivation (create and use an observation sheet).  Before creating specific ways to assess you should always ask yourself "What outcomes do I expect from using the new methods?"

Teachers are the ones that decide on instructional strategies and how to carry them out. When teachers create an instructional design for technology integration, they need to consider the characteristics of their topic and the needs of their students and then decide on a course of action that will meet both needs within the constraints of their classroom environment. When deciding on teaching/learning methods the first distinction a teacher must make is whether or not to use directed strategies or constructive strategies.

After determining whether integration strategies will be primarily directed or constructive, also consider content approach. Should the approach be single subject or interdisciplinary? A few other questions that a teacher will need to answer while developing instruction is: Should students work individually, in pairs, in small groups, or as a whole class? How can technology best support these methods? How can I prepare students adequately to use these techonologies?

Remember as a teacher you never stop learning. Ask yourself questions and don't be afraid to do a little research.

Teachers are responsible to organize the teaching environment so that technology integration can be successfully carried out. Research has proved that teachers can only adequately integrate technology if the proper resources are available (hardware, software, and technical support). The school and district must provide many of these essential conditions, but for each technology integration strategy, the teacher considers which conditions are in place and to what degree. This helps shape the kind of integration possible for the situation.

In order to know what changes that need to be made to technology-integrated methods to make them better, Teachers must review outcome data and information on the methods implemented. Teachers can also ask students or observers what they think could be improved. Some teachers write daily notes or logs on implementation problems and issues. Some questions teachers should ask themselves to evaluate an issue are: Were the objectives achieved? What do students say? Could improving instructional strategies improve results? Have I integrated technology well? Some of the best suggestions come from the students and should be taken into consideration; they are the learners and focus. Technologies do not create improvements, it's how the teacher utilizes technology that is most crucial.